MICHAEL WILLIAM WHITTLE

PUBLICATIONS

Books, chapters and theses

Scientific papers in refereed publications

Articles in magazines and newsletters

Abstracts and papers in conference proceedings

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BOOKS, CHAPTERS AND THESES

Whittle MW. (1970) Recording the electrocardiogram on magnetic tape. MSc Thesis (Biomechanics) University of Surrey, England.

Whedon GD, Lutwak L, Rambaut PC, Whittle MW, Smith MC, Reid J, Leach CS, Stadler CR, Sanford DD. (1977) Mineral and Nitrogen Metabolic Studies, Experiment MO71. Biomedical Results from skylab (Johnston RS, Dietlein LF, eds.) Washington, DC: NASA. 164-174.

Vogel JM, Whittle MW, Smith MC, Rambaut PC. (1977) Bone Mineral Measurement, Experiment MO78. Biomedical Results from skylab (Johnston RS, Dietline LF, eds.) Washington, DC: NASA. 183-190.

Whittle MW, Herron R, Cuzzi J. (1977) Biostereometric Analysis of Body Form. Biomedical Results from skylab (Johnston RS, Dietline LF, eds.) Washington, DC: NASA. 198-202.

Whittle MW. (1978) The effects of prolonged spaceflight on human body composition. PhD Thesis (Human Biology and Health) University of Surrey, England. Whittle M, Harris D. (eds). (1985) Biomechanical Measurement in Orthopaedic Practice. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Whittle MW. (1987) Principles of Biomechanics. Orthopaedics (Hughes SPF, Benson MKD'A, Colton CL, eds.) Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. 317-339.

Whittle MW, Cochrane GM. (1989) A comparative evaluation of the hip guidance orthosis (HGO) and the reciprocating gait orthosis (RGO). London: National Health Service Procurement Directorate, Health Equipment Information. 192.

Whittle MW. (1991) Gait analysis: an introduction. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Levine DL, Whittle MW. (1991) Lower extremities: gait analysis. Orthopaedic Physical Therapy Home Study Course Berryville VA: Forum Medicum.

Whittle MW. (1993) Gait analysis. Chapter 10 in: The soft tissues (McLatchie GR, ed.) Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. 295-309.

Whittle MW. (1995) Musculo-skeletal applications of three-dimensional analysis. Chapter 13 in: Three-dimensional analysis of human movement (Allard P, Stokes IAF, Blanchi J-P, eds.) Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics. 295-309.

Whittle MW. (1996) Gait analysis: an introduction (second edition). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Whittle MW. (2002) Gait analysis: an introduction (third edition). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Whittle MW. (2007) Gait analysis: an introduction (fourth edition). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

SCIENTIFIC PAPERS IN REFEREED PUBLICATIONS

Marks R, Whittle MW, Beard RJ, Robertson WB, Gold SC. (1968) Small bowel abnormalities in dermatitis herpetiformis. British Medical Journal. 1968(1), 552-555.

Marks R, Whittle MW. (1969) Results of treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis with a gluten-free diet after one year. British Medical Journal. 1969(4), 772-775.

Whedon GD, Lutwak L, Rambaut PC, Whittle MW, Reid J, Smith MC, Leach C, Stadler CR, Sanford DD. (1976) Mineral and nitrogen balance study observations: the second manned skylab mission. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine. 47, 391-396.

Vogel JM, Whittle MW. (1976) Bone mineral changes: the second manned skylab mission. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine. 47, 396-400.

Whittle MW, Herron RE, Cuzzi JR. (1976) Biostereometric analysis of body form: the second manned skylab mission. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine. 47, 410-412.

Whittle, MW. (1979) Caloric and exercise requirements of space flight: biostereometric results from skylab. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine. 50, 163-167.

Whittle MW, Evans M. (1979) Instrument for measuring the Cobb angle in scoliosis. Lancet. 1979(1), 414-415.

Thurston AJ, Whittle MW, Stokes IAF. (1981) Spinal and pelvic movement during walking - a new method of study. Engineering in Medicine. 10, 219-222.

Whittle MW. (1982) Calibration and performance of a three-dimensional television system for kinematic analysis. Journal of Biomechanics. 15, 185-196.

Pearcy MJ, Whittle MW. (1982) Movements of the lumbar spine measured by three-dimensional x-ray analysis. Journal of Biomedical Engineering. 4, 107-112.

Kirtley C, Whittle MW, Jefferson RJ. (1985) Influence of walking speed on gait parameters. Journal of Biomedical Engineering. 7, 282-288.

Whittle MW. (1986) Dynamic assessment of knee joint function. Engineering in Medicine. 15, 71-75.

Khodadadeh S, Whittle MW, Bremble GR. (1986) Height of centre of body mass during osteoarthritic gait. Clinical Biomechanics. 1, 77-80.

Pearcy MJ, Gill JM, Whittle MW. (1987) Dynamic back movement measured using a three-dimensional television system. Journal of Biomechanics. 20, 943-949.

Soriano RMG, Jefferson RJ, Whittle MW. (1987) The measurement of toe-out. Medical Science Research Journal. 15, 877.

Whittle MW. (1988) Paraplegic locomotion. Clinical Rehabilitation. 2, 45-49.

Whittle MW. (1988) The spectrum of gait analysis. Journal of the British Institute of Surgical Technologists. 2, 21-25.

Chase AP, Whittle MW. (1988) The use of computerised gait analysis in the design and prescription of knee orthoses. Journal of the British Institute of Surgical Technologists. 2, 9-11.

Collins JJ, Whittle MW. (1989) Impulsive forces during walking and their clinical implications. Clinical Biomechanics. 4, 179-187.

Whittle MW, Jefferson RJ. (1989) Functional biomechanical assessment of the Oxford Meniscal Knee. Journal of Arthroplasty. 4, 231-243.

Morrish G, Whittle MW. (1989) Spinal Orthoses. Current Orthopaedics. 3, 122-127.

Jefferson RJ, Whittle MW. (1989) Biomechanical assessment of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty, total condylar arthroplasty and tibial osteotomy. Clinical Biomechanics. 4, 232-242.

Collins JJ, Whittle MW. (1989) Influence of gait parameters on the loading of the lower limb. Journal of Biomedical Engineering. 11, 409-412.

Nissan M, Whittle MW. (1990) Initiation of gait in normal subjects: a preliminary study. Journal of Biomedical Engineering. 12, 165-171.

Wang Q, Kenwright J, Whittle M, Cunningham J. (1990) Biomechanical study of the effects of the ankle ligaments on the stability of the ankle joint and the distribution of load between the tibia and fibula. Chinese journal of clinical anatomy. 8, 175-178.

Jefferson RJ, Whittle MW. (1990) Performance of three walking orthoses for the paralysed: a case study using gait analysis. Prosthetics and Orthotics International. 14, 103-110.

Jefferson RJ, Collins JJ, Whittle MW, Radin EL, O'Connor JJ. (1990) The role of the quadriceps in controlling impulsive forces around heelstrike. Journal of Engineering in Medicine. 204, 21-28.

Whittle MW, Cochrane GM, Chase AP, Copping AV, Jefferson RJ, Staples DJ, Fenn PT, Thomas DC. (1991) A comparison between two walking systems for paralysed people. Paraplegia. 29, 97-102.

Whittle MW, Orofino TA, Miller K. (1994) A technical approach to characterization of the perceived comfort of walking surfaces. Gait and Posture. 2, 129-133.

Whittle MW. (1995) Gait analysis. Sports Exercise and Injury. 1, 191-197.

Wang Q, Whittle M, Cunningham J, Kenwright J. (1996) Fibula and its ligaments in load transmission and ankle joint stability. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 330, 261-270.

Levine D, Whittle MW, Beach JA, Ollard PG. (1996) Test-retest reliability of the Chattecx Balance System in the patient with hemiplegia. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 33, 36-44.

Whittle MW. (1996) Clinical gait analysis: a review. Human Movement Science. 15, 369-387.

Levine D, Whittle MW. (1996) The effects of pelvic movement on lumbar lordosis in the standing position. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 24, 130-135.

Whittle MW, Levine DF. (1997) Measurement of lumbar lordosis as a component of clinical gait analysis. Gait and Posture. 5, 101-107.

Whittle MW. (1997) Three-dimensional motion of the center of gravity of the body during walking. Human Movement Science. 16, 347-355.

Whittle MW, Levine D. (1999) Three-dimensional relationships between the movements of the pelvis and lumbar spine during normal gait. Human Movement Science 18, 681-692.

Whittle MW. (1999) Generation and attenuation of transient impulsive forces beneath the foot:a review. Gait and Posture 10, 264-275.

Wu G, Siegler S, Allard P, Kirtley C, Leardini A, Rosenbaum D, Whittle M, D'Lima DD, Cristofolini L, Witte H, Schmid O, Stokes I. (2002) ISB recommendation on definitions of joint coordinate system of various joints for the reporting of human joint motion - part 1: ankle, hip, and spine. Journal of Biomechanics 35:543-548.

Levine D, Prall E, Hanks J, Whittle M, Marcellin-Little D. (2003) Are the Long-Term Effects of Running Related to the Development of Osteoarthritis? Part II: Human Studies. Athletic Therapy Today 8:12-18.

Levine D, Prall E, Hanks J, Whittle M, Marcellin-Little D. (2003) Are the Long-Term Effects of Running Related to the Development of Osteoarthritis? Part I: Animal Studies. Athletic Therapy Today 8:6-11.

Levine D, Ingram D, Walker R, Whittle MW, Solly C, Squires T, Walsh R. (2008) The effects of the five ballet positions on posture of the lumbar spine, pelvis, and hip. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 38, A54.

ARTICLES IN MAGAZINES AND NEWSLETTERS

Whittle MW. (1970) Audio-visual aids at St. George's. The Saint George's Hospital Gazette. 55, 14-17.

Whittle MW. (1976) skylab - the medical side. The Royal Air Forces Quarterly. 16, 139-147.

Whittle MW. (1979) Exercise and the astronauts. Medisport. 1, 12-15.

Whittle MW. (1983) Gait analysis by computer. Physiotherapy. 69, 164.

Whittle MW. (1986) Dynamic knee assessment using the "Knee-C-G". Vicon Users Newsletter. 2, 16-20.

Whittle MW. (1986) Joint studies. Oxford Magazine, Second Week Hilary Term. 4.

Whittle MW. (1989) From St. George's Hospital to Cape Canaveral. St. George's Hospital Gazette. 30-31.

Whittle MW. (1995) Gait assessment in the management of walking disorders. Volunteer Voice: Tennessee Physical Therapy Association. 16, 3-7.

Whittle MW, Blanchi J-P. (1997) 3-D analysis of human movement (guest editorial). Human Movement Science. 16, 153.

Whittle MW. (2001) Gait analysis. Malta Association of Physiotherapy Students Newsletter.

ABSTRACTS AND PAPERS IN CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS

Dudding RW, Whittle MW. (1967) Dry bearings for electricity meters. IEE Conference on Metering and Apparatus, London.

Whittle MW. (1968) The effect of bile on polyethylene glycol assay. British Journal of Surgery. 55, 393.

Whittle MW. (1968) The intestinal uptake of cyanocobalamin. British Journal of Surgery. 55, 394.

Vogel JM, Whittle MW. (1974) Bone mineral measurements on the second skylab crew. Aerospace Medical Association, Washington DC. 210-211.

Whittle MW, Herron RE, Cuzzi JR. (1974) Stereometric analysis of body form: the second manned skylab mission. Aerospace Medical Association, Washington DC. 216-217.

Vogel JM, Whittle MW. (1974) Bone mineral measurement - Experiment M078. skylab Life Sciences Symposium, Houston, Texas. 387-401.

Whittle MW, Herron RE, Cuzzi JR. (1974) Biostereometric analysis of body form. skylab Life Sciences Symposium, Houston, Texas. 417-424.

Whittle MW, Herron RE, Cuzzi JR, Hugg JE. (1974) Effects of extended spaceflight on body form of skylab astronauts using biostereometric methods. Biostereometrics 74. Falls Church, Virginia: American Society of Photogrammetry. 588-589.

Keys CW, Whittle MW, Herron RE, Cuzzi JR. (1975) Biostereometrics in aerospace medicine. Close-Range Photogrammetric Systems. Falls Church, Virginia: American Society of Photogrammetry. 209-220.

Whittle MW. (1976) The effects of prolonged spaceflight on human body composition. 2nd East Kilbride Conference on Progress and Problems of in vivo Activation Analysis, Glasgow.

Whittle MW, Herron RE, Cuzzi JR, Keys CW. (1976) The effects of prolonged spaceflight on the regional distribution of fluid, muscle and fat: biostereometric results from skylab. NATO AGARD Conference on Recent Advances in Space Medicine, Athens. C71-75.

Whittle MW. (1977) Regional changes in volume of the skylab astronauts. Aerospace Medical Association Annual Scientific Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada.

Whittle MW. (1978) The effect of spaceflight on regional body volume studied by a biostereometric technique. Orthopaedic Engineering (Harris D, Copeland K, eds.) London: Biological Engineering Society. 108-112.

Whittle MW. (1979) A three-dimensional kinematic/kinetic system for the study of lower limb biomechanics. Annual Scientific Meeting, Society for Research in Rehabilitation, London.

Whittle MW. (1980) The use of biostereometric methods to study astronaut body composition. Applications of Human Biostereometrics. Washington, DC: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. 166, 286-293.

Whittle MW. (1980) Kinematics of treadmill walking. Human Locomotion I. Ottawa: Canadian Society of Biomechanics. 30-31.

Whittle MW. (1981) Three-dimensional measurement of forces on the knee. Mechanical Factors and the Skeleton (Stokes IAF, ed.) London: John Libbey. 65-68.

Whittle MW. (1981) Survival in space. Applied Nutrition I (Bateman EC, ed.) London: John Libbey. 74-75.

Whittle MW, Deshmukh BA. (1982) Three-dimensional kinetic and kinematic testing in knee disorders. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 64B, 385.

Whittle MW, Morris JRW. (1982) Requirements for accuracy in video-based three-dimensional motion analysis. Human Locomotion II. Ottawa: Canadian Society of Biomechanics. 94-95.

Whittle MW. (1983) Biomechanical assessment of knee orthoses during gait. Human Gait Analysis and Applications, INSERM, Montpellier. 193-195.

Whittle MW. (1984) The clinical use of knee angle and moment data. Human Locomotion III. Ottawa: Canadian Society of Biomechanics. 21-22.

Whittle MW, Jefferson RJ. (1985) The clinical use of knee angle and moment data. Biomechanical Measurement in Orthopaedic Practice (Whittle M, Harris D, eds.) Oxford: Oxford University Press. 227-233.

Whittle MW. (1985) The measurement of walking. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. 8, 246.

Johns L, Sargeant AJ, Whittle MW. (1985) The measurement of external knee moments during weightlifting. Journal of Physiology. 365, 9.

Whittle MW, Jefferson RJ. (1986) Objective biomechanical assessment of total knee replacements. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 68B, 839.

Whittle MW, Jefferson RJ. (1986) Biomechanical assessment of the results of knee surgery. Human Locomotion IV. Ottawa: Canadian Society of Biomechanics. 285-286.

Radin EL, Whittle MW, Yang KH, Jefferson RJ, Rodgers MM, Kish VL, O'Connor JJ. (1986) The heelstrike transient, its relationship with the angular velocity of the shank, and the effects of quadriceps paralysis. Advances in Bioengineering (Lantz SH, King AI, eds.) New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineering. 121-123.

Whittle MW, Barnes SC. (1987) Defining normal ranges for gait parameters. Gait Analysis and Medical Photogrammetry. Oxford: Oxford Orthopaedic Engineering Centre. 46-47.

Cochrane GM, Whittle MW, Jefferson RJ. (1987) Restoration of walking with orthoses: comparative trial of mechanical devices. Restoration of Walking aided by Electrical Stimulation. Milan: Edizione Fondazione pro Juventute. 113-115.

Whittle MW. (1987) Gait analysis - its usefulness or otherwise. British Journal of Rheumatology. 26(Abs.), 86.

Whittle MW, Sargeant AJ, Johns L. (1988) Computerised analysis of knee moments during weightlifting. Biomechanics XI-B (de Groot G, Hollander AP, Huijing PA, vanIngen Schenau GJ, eds.) Amsterdam: Free University. 886-888.

Whittle MW, Cochrane GM, Staples DJ, Chase AP, Copping AV, Jefferson RJ, Thomas DC, Fenn PT. (1988) Comparative trial of two walking braces for paralysed people. Bath: Society for Research in Rehabilitation.

Whittle MW, Jefferson RJ. (1988) A biomechanical study of two walking braces for the paralysed. San Antonio, Texas: World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering. 33:Suppl 1, 388.

Whittle MW, Jefferson RJ. (1988) Performance of two walking braces for the paralysed. Ottawa: Canadian Society of Biomechanics Fifth Biennial Conference and Symposium. 172-173.

Nissan M, Whittle MW, Jefferson RJ. (1988) Biomechanics of the initiation of gait: experimental results. Bristol: European Society of Biomechanics. 14C.

Whittle MW, Jefferson RJ. (1988) Gait analysis of paralysed people using two types of walking brace. Bristol: European Society of Biomechanics. 18C.

Whittle MW, Jefferson RJ. (1989) Functional biomechanical assessment of the Oxford meniscal knee. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 71B, 724.

Jefferson RJ, Whittle MW. (1990) Functional biomechanics of unicompartmental arthroplasty compared with total condylar arthroplasty and tibial osteotomy. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 72B, 161-162.

Whittle MW. (1990) Methods of gait analysis for use in the clinic and the laboratory. Zhuhai, China: The national society of biomechanics. 602-603.

Whittle MW. (1991) Musculo-skeletal applications of three-dimensional analysis. International symposium on three-dimensional analysis of human motion, Montreal. 171-174.

Whittle MW. (1992) Patterns of gait in normal subjects and in paraplegics using FES. Restoration of walking for paraplegics: recent advances and trends (Pedotti A, Ferrarin M, eds.). Milan, Italy: Edizioni pro Juvente. 21-24.

Whittle M, Jefferson R. (1992) Performance of three walking orthoses for the paralyzed: a case study using gait analysis. Proceedings of the Seventh World Congress of ISPO (Zupko JK, ed.). Alexandria, Virginia: International Society of Prosthetics and Orthotics. 36.

Whittle MW, Orofino TA, Miller K. (1992) Relationship between mechanical properties of carpet and comfort in walking. Proceedings of NACOB II: The Second North American Congress on Biomechanics. Ann Arbor, Michigan: American Society of Biomechanics, 283-284.

Whittle MW, Ferris KJ. (1993) Effect of walkway carpeting on gait analysis data. East Coast Clinical Gait Analysis Meeting, Rochester, Minnesota.

Whittle MW. (1993) Characterization of the heelstrike transient using a force platform. Second International Symposium on Three-Dimensional Analysis of Human Movement, Poitiers, France.

Ferris KJ, Whittle MW. (1993) Gait analysis of individuals with Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Miami, Florida.

Hood KF, Whittle MW. (1994) Relationship between gait abnormalities and clinical characteristics of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. North American Clinical Gait Conference, Portland, Oregon.

Headrick JR, Sailors DS, Land RL, Clements JB, Whittle M, Russell WL, Fisher DF. (1994) Distal revascularization in dialysis dependent patients with diabetes: is bypass justified? Southern Association of Vascular Surgeons, Scotsdale, Arizona, January.

Whittle MW, Levine DF. (1994) Measurement of lumbar lordosis while performing clinical gait analysis. Third International Symposium on 3-D Analysis of Human Movement, Stockholm, July 5-8. 57-60.

Whittle MW, Williams CD. (1994) Reliability of force platform data in the estimation of insole shock attenuation. VIIIth Biennial Conference, Canadian Society for Biomechanics, Calgary, Canada, August 18-20.

Whittle MW, Levine DF. (1995) Sagittal plane motion of the lumbar spine during normal gait. Gait and Posture. 3, 82.

Walker JR, Levine DF, Whittle MW. (1995) A study of lumbar lordosis and pelvic tilt during standing and gait. 12th International Congress of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy, Washington, DC. p.735.

Levine D, Whittle MW. (1995) Reliability of the measurement of lumbar lordosis during clinical gait analysis. 12th International Congress of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy, Washington DC. p.736.

Whittle MW, Levine DF. (1996) Changes in pelvic tilt and lumbar lordosis during gait. Gait & Posture. 4, 170.

Whittle MW. (1996) Three-dimensional motion of the body center of gravity during walking. International Symposium on 3-D Measurement of Human Movement, Grenoble, France, July 1-3.

Levine D, Whittle MW, Hood KF. (1996) Static and dynamic relationships between pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis and abdominal muscle performance. Physical Therapy. 76, S74.

Whittle, MW. (1997) Force platform measurement of the heelstrike transient in normal walking. Gait and Posture. 5, 173-174.

Whittle MW, Levine (1998) Three-dimensional lumbar spinal motion in walking: a comparison between three studies. NACOB 98, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

Whittle M, Levine D, Burke M (1998) Three-dimensional motion of the lumbar spine during normal gait. Gait and Posture. 7, 153.

Whittle MW, Levine DL (1998) Three-dimensional relationships between the movements of the pelvis and lumbar spine in walking. Fifth International Symposium on the Three-Dimensional Analysis of Human Movement, Chattanooga, USA.

Carmichael V, Whittle MW. (1999) Gender differences in the heelstrike transient. Gait and Posture 9, 144-145.

Beach JA, Davis LH, Whittle MW, Hood K. (1999) A comparative analysis of polypropylene and thermoplastic elastomer ankle foot orthoses in a hemiparetic patient. American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine, Orlando, Florida.

Whittle MW. (2000) The use of virtual heel markers to measure walking base in clinical gait analysis: methodology and accuracy. Sixth International Symposium on the Three-Dimensional Analysis of Human Movement, Cape Town, South Africa.

Whittle MW. (2000) Variability in the three-dimensional trajectory of the foot at initial contact during normal walking. Sixth International Symposium on the Three-Dimensional Analysis of Human Movement, Cape Town, South Africa.

Whittle MW, Levine D, Pharo EC. (2000) Sagittal plane motion of the pelvis and lumbar spine during level, uphill and downhill walking and running. Gait and Posture 11, 162.

Levine D, Pharo EC, Whittle MW. (2000) Three-dimensional analysis of lumbar lordosis during running on level, uphill and downhill conditions. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 30, A-27-8.

de Guzman AB, Whittle MW. (2000) Normal values for walking base measured during clinical gait analysis. Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry 108, 69.

Griffin MJ, Rolin ML, Levine D, Whittle MW. (2001) The effect of static magnetic fields on grip strength: a double blind study. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 31, A-25.

Carlson L, Wilkerson G, Miller M, Whittle M. (2002) Functional knee brace increases peak ground reaction forces in ACL-R subjects. Southeast Athletic Trainers Association, 27th Annual Meeting, Atlanta, March 15-17.

Whittle MW. (2003) Reduction of crosstalk in the measurement of spinal motion. Gait and Posture 18 (Suppl. 2)

Whittle MW, Walker JR. (2004) The Three-Dimensional Measurement of Head Movement. Eighth International Symposium on the 3-D Analysis of Human Movement, Tampa, Florida, March 31 - April 2, 2004.


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